How are new vaccines really created?

  1. Attenuated vaccines: These vaccines are used for highly contagious viral infections such as measles or chickenpox. The way that these vaccines are probably the way that you’ve heard about. The viruses are toned down using special chemicals and are then injected so that you develop antibodies without actually infecting yourself.
  2. Inactivated vaccines: These vaccines are used for crippling highly dangerous viruses such as polio. These are dead viruses and bacteria. Essentially, the goal is to trick our body into developing antibodies. However, these vaccines don’t provide as much immunity as attenuated vaccines, so you may have to get 2 or 3 booster shots in your lifetime.
  3. Toxoid vaccines: These are vaccines for toxins produced by bacteria, such as the Tetanus shot. Very small doses of toxins are injected into our body, which teach our body to fight against it.
  1. Phase One testing: After the vaccine has been developed, it must be tested on the target audience to see whether they develop antibodies. The target audience in this case would be elderly people whose immune systems are weaker and are at more risk of contracting COVID-19. The group is given the lowest dose medical researchers believe is required to develop antibodies. This has been difficult, because of the contagious nature of the virus, and because it is still relatively unknown, only one company has been able to get past Phase One testing.
  2. Phase Two testing: After the test has been approved, more people must be enlisted. However, this time they must be from a broad spectrum of age, sex, race, and economic backgrounds. If the vaccine proves to be successful for all of these categories, and has no side effects, it advances to stage 3.
  3. Phase Three testing: This is the last stage in virus testing. Thousands of applicants are in a room are given the vaccines and a placebo. Their antibody production is observed against the placebo, and if there is a significant benefit in using the vaccine, the vaccine is ordered into production.




Hi! I'm Angad, a Grade 9 student from the University of Toronto Schools who loves learning anything and everything!

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Hi! I'm Angad, a Grade 9 student from the University of Toronto Schools who loves learning anything and everything!

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